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The Palestinian Question Essay

  1. Introduction

Moses. one clip prince of Egypt turned at large liquidator. was be givening his flock when one twenty-four hours he saw a ‘Burning Bush. ’ The combustion shrub boomed with the voice of God and told him to “Lead my people out of Egypt. and present them to the land of Milk and Honey [ 1 ] ” the land of Cannan. These celebrated anecdotes from the books of Exodus and Genesis are perchance two of the oldest and most unequivocal claims Hebrewss have to their lands. Ever since their independency in 1948 the province of Israel has weathered struggle after struggle against its Arab neighbour who would wish nil better than to see them driven into the sea.

For case. in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 a multi-national host from Egypt. Syria. Libya. Iraq. Jordan and many other Arab states banded together to oppress the newcomer province. The failure of these attempts to destruct Israel and the common hatred it has inspired has led to a terrible refugee job for the displaced Palestinian Muslims. To this twenty-four hours there are 10s of 1000s of Palestinians who hold themselves to hold been driven from their places and will non rest until they take it back. But to make so they must postulate with an Israel that holds a 1000s year-old claim on the kingdom.

  1. History of Palestine

The land of Israel is located along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. The land has alterations names many times but since scriptural times it have been a combative district. The Pharaoh’s ground forcess passed through from Egypt to do war farther West. Assyrian. Babylonian and Iranian ground forcess marched over Israel to do it to Egypt and beyond. Alexander’s Macedonians. and Caesar’s Romans besides took Israel as merely another portion of their runs of universe conquering. The Crusader braved 1000s of conferences of hostile lands to do it to the land of Christ’s birth. War and bloodshed has been the destiny of the land where three of the world’s major faiths were born.

  1. The Land of Cannan
  2. Abraham. Isaac and Israel

When Abram. a nomad from Ur. was asked by God to abandon his father’s lands and travel east he began the migration that would finally stop with Abraham and Sarah life with award among the Cannanites. God promised him that he would be his kids would be every bit legion as the stars and every bit plentiful as the littorals in the beach. Yet he merely had two boies Isaac and Ishmael. Muslims. claim descent from Ishmael. while the Jews are the inheritors of Isaac’s boy Jacob who would subsequently be known as Israel.

Israel had twelve boies from whom the 12 folk of Israel claimed descent. One of the youngest was sold to Egypt as slave. Joseph would shortly be high in the favour of the Egyptian Pharaoh and would welcome his brothers to Egypt following a awful dearth that he had predicted. Since so the Hebrews and the Sons of Israel left Cannan and lived in Egypt.

  1. Moses and the book of Exodus

After some clip the Hebrews prospered in Egypt and shortly became a distressing minority for the Pharaoh. He began one of the first pogroms against the Hebrews by suppressing them with more work and less rations. He murdered their kids and ordered all male babes killed. However his persecution was to be his ain curse. Moses was saved by his female parent and finally found his manner to the Gatess of Pharaoh’s castle where he would be adopted by the Pharaoh’s girl.

Moses would subsequently kill an Egyptian he saw suppressing a Hebrew slave. The daze of the slaying would coerce him into expatriate in the Sinai where he had his fatal brush with the firing shrub. As mentioned earlier it was there that God gave him his mission to liberate the Hebrews from their subjugation and convey them back to Cannan where Israel and his boies abided before they came to Egypt. After more than 40 old ages of rolling in the desert the Hebrews eventually returned to Cannan under the leading of Joshua. There they found the Cannanites. the Hittites. Amorites. Perizzites. Hivites and the Jebusites already populating in comparative peace for centuries. Ironically. when the Zionist Jews returned in the 20ThursdayCentury they found Cannan in similar fortunes. Except that alternatively of scriptural. perchance fabulous folks busying it they found the grampss of the present twenty-four hours Palestinians.

  1. Jesus. the false Messiah and the Diaspora

Jesus of Nazareth. the christ of the Christian religion warned the people of Israel that a false christ would come and take them astray. He would demo such marks as to do the people believe that he is so the christ. This occurred in around 70AD when the Jews rose up in rebellion. It was hopeless cause. we Nero eventually found about the rebellion he sent ordered several hosts to stamp down it. By the clip of the autumn of Jerusalem some 60. 000 professional legionnaires were in the Palestine stamp downing the despairing Zealots. A subsequently rebellion in 135AD led to the complete obliteration of the Judaic province in Judea.

The reign of Hadrian was particularly tragic for the Jews because all Jews were exiled from Jerusalem and the other Palestinian metropoliss. Many Jews were sold as slaves or transported as captives to other parts to joint other antecedently exiled Jews. Although most were accepted in the communities they were sent excessively. the Judaic people had ceased to be as a political entity. Henceforth. they were simply little minority groups where of all time they lived. Their batch was surely better than the Christian Gentiles who frequently found themselves in the amphitheater confronting hungry king of beastss.

  1. The Holy Land

With the rise of Christianity and Islam Palestine gained fresh importance. For the Christians this was the land where Jesus lived and began his ministry while the Muslims believed that the Mohammad ascended into heaven on the really same stone where Abraham tried to give his boy Isaac. It was known as the Holy Land. Much blood would be shed by the Cross and the Crescent in the tests for its ownership.

  1. The Crusades

In1095 it was held by Muslims. Outraged Christian Europe under the leading of Pope Urban II send a huge ground forces against the Turkish Muslims. As an added inducement Poper Urban II promised that whoever died in the Crusades would have immediate remittal of their wickednesss. The reformer ground forces was successful. However. in their ardor against the Muslims they performed a big figure of atrociousnesss that are remembered to this twenty-four hours. For illustration. when Jerusalem was taken the Crusaders slaughtered the full population.

The Crusaders were successful in set uping several little Christian Kingdoms. However. these were bantam islands trapped in a sea of enemies. Almost every bit shortly as they were established. the Christian Kingdoms were attacked continuously by Muslim Jihadis taking to the autumn of rather a few of them in rapid sequence. The film Kingdom of Heaven was about Saldin’s recapturing Jerusalem and the dramatic extremes work forces of both religions would travel for the interest of possessing the Holy Land.

Ultimately Three Major Crusades and several smaller 1s were launched for the conquering of the Holy Land. For over a century Christian Europe bled itself white directing the flower of its gallantry to war in a hostile land with small hope of success. Yet merely as the cause seemed hopeless 1000s of immature knights and Lords lief came Forth in hopes of deriving glorification in the name of their God.

  1. Salah-ad-din yusuf ibn-ayyub

Saladin a Kurdish born Muslim baronial who ruled Egypt and subsequently Syria was like most Muslim swayer could non accept that infidel Christians were now lording over some of the holiest topographic points of the Muslim religion. At first he was non strong plenty to oppose the Reformers because his clasp on Egypt was still delicate and he was frequently at odds with neighbouring Muslim provinces.

After he had eventually consolidated his clasp on the Muslim universe. Saladin would establish a bloody and frequently flagitious Jihad against the Christian Kingdoms. Atrocity was met with Atrocity. as the two religions endeavor with each other for maestro of the Holy Land. For illustration. after the Battle of Hattin Saladin ordered all members of the Military orders such as Teutonic Knights and the Knights Templar beheaded on the topographic point the Crusaders were no less cruel against Muslim captives. One illustration of their ain inhuman treatment was the pattern of blinding Muslim captives leting merely every fifth adult male the usage of one oculus to take the remainder.

Ultimately. the gore ended with the awful conflicts of the Third Crusade. There Richard Couer De Leon of England. Philip II of France and Conrad of the Holy Roman Empire led the huge ground forcess of the Third campaign against Saladin. After many conflicts Richard and Saladin agreed to the Treaty of Ramala where Jerusalem would stay in Muslim custodies but Christians would be free to travel at that place on pilgrim’s journeies.

  1. The initiation of Israel

After the Saladin. the Holy Land remained in Muslim custodies for centuries. Saladin’s kingdom ended about instantly after his decease. Within a few short decennaries the Ottoman Turks were the new proprietors of Palestine. It was non until Lawrence of Arabia led his ground forces of Arabian nomads to triumph in World War I that the Ottoman’s were overthrown. However. alternatively of independency for the Arabs. the British took over Palestine and established their authorization over them. Palestine in the early 20Thursdaycentury was a British district populated by Arab Muslims. However an increasing drip of Jews were geting from all over the British Empire and the remainder of the universe. The Zionists were coming place.

  1. Zionist motion

Named after Mt Zion were Jerusalem was built. Zionism is an international political motion for the creative activity of a fatherland for the Judaic people in the Land of Israel. Besides known as diaspora patriotism It was officially established by Judaic Journalist Theodor Herzl in the late 19th century. The motion is extremely successful holding created the first and merely modern Jewish province in the universe. These ultra-nationalistic Hebrews are the consequence of centuries of defeat of non holding a place land and the favoritism they suffer all over the universe at the custodies of Christians. Muslims and others merely because they are a minority that has a different religion. Ironically. despites its beginnings as a motion to oppose racism and racial favoritism against Jews the U. N. has branded Zionism as a signifier of racism and racial favoritism

As mentioned earlier Zionism as a nationalist political orientation arose as a response to antisemitism which was a signifier of heavy handed favoritism against Jews. For centuries. particularly in the 19Thursdayand 20ThursdayCenturies the Jews had been victims of racial and spiritual favoritism. Christians persecuted them as the slayings of Christ and forced them to change over. In fact. one of the supplications of the old Latin mass is a letter for the transition of Jews. Communists besides persecuted them for being true to their religion in when a Communist province was supposed to be one that was free from faith which was the opiate of the multitudes.

At bosom the Zionists justified themselves as being one distinguishable nationality unified by their religion. Sing other minorities in Europe battle for self-government emboldened them to seek for a place land of their ain. After all. if the European minorities were entitled to a free state of their ain why non the Jews? .

The first Congress of Basel in 1897 was the meeting where the major fomenters behind Zionism met for the first clip and officially established the World Zionist Organization. At that Congress the Basel Program was completed and its pronunciamento provided that ; Zionism seeks to set up a place for the Judaic people in Israel secure under public jurisprudence. To achieve this end they set about on four plans ; foremost. the publicity by appropriate agencies of the colony in Israel of Judaic husbandmans. craftsmans and makers.

Second. the organisation and amalgamation of the whole of Jewry by agencies of appropriate establishments. both local and international. in conformity with the Torahs of each state. third the strengthening and fosterage of Judaic national sentiment and national consciousness. foruth. preparative stairss towards obtaining the consent of authoritiess. where necessary in order to make the ends of Zionism.

However. there was small involvement in the remainder of the universe for the interest of the Jews. The universe merely did non care. It was non until Hitler unleashed the Holocaust upon the incapacitated Jews that international understanding for Zionism catalyzed into existent action. After World War Two’s horrors more and more Hebrews came to Palestine in fulfilment of Zionism’s ends. There they found the land much as Joshua’s Hebrew found it. Full of Palestinians who were busying land that. they felt. truly belong to the Jews.

  1. 1948 War

By 1947 the tenseness between the Jews and Arabs had reached fever pitch. The Jews were of course interested in self-propagation and frequently held themselves apart from the Arabs when they could. They did non engage Arab workers if they could happen aid among other Jews. Their colonists were increasing in figure and rather shortly were a important axis of the population.

The UN mandated that separate enclaves for Jews and Arabs would be created within Palestine in order to decrease the clash between the two groups. The Zionist leading accepted the divider program as “the indispensable lower limit. ” sword lily as they were with the international acknowledgment. but sorry that they didn’t acquire more. Unfortunately the arbitrary divider was the flicker for an already explosive state of affairs. Thousands of Jews and Palestinians were displaced by the mandatary and arbitrary divider.

The Phase was set for war. The Zionists were ready. they had trained both under British regulation and in belowground cantonments for the twenty-four hours when they would hold to contend for independency. Despite the bantam population of the fledgling Judaic province 1000s of Judaic work forces and adult females formed a committed combat force under the auspices of the Yishuv. all told some 35. 000 Jews took up the cudgels for independency although merely about 10. 000 of these were really fit for frontline responsibility. They besides had the elect Palamch ranger to spearhead their onslaughts. The Palamach and its wartime feats

After the licking of the Arabs in Palestine. the full Arab World was stirred to wrath. Quoting the ancient triumphs of Saladin against the marauding Crusaders. the Arabs united to oppress these new supplanters of their Holy Land. Like the Crusaders of old the immature province of Israel was faced with a tide of enemies many times their figure and driven to fanaticism by their common religion.

It went down to a trial of volitions. on who wanted the Holy Land more. The Arabs. driven with Jihadi fanatism were determined to subvert the Jews from the Holy Land. The Jews. had nowhere else to travel. Ultimately. with a combination of superior tactics and preparation. non to advert the internal squabbling between the Arab leaders. the Jews prevailed. For the first clip since the yearss of Rehoboam boy of Solomon boy of David. the Children of Israel had a land of their ain independent and free.

Unfortunately it would non be the terminal of its battles. Israel would confront moving ridge after moving ridge of encroachers from its Neighbors who merely refused to accept their being in Palestine. Nevertheless. they stood their land and have staunchly defended their districts of all time since.

They were besides non above establishing pre-emptive work stoppages. In 1967 After much sabre rattling by their enemies. particularly Egypt the Israeli authorities became positive that war was high. Rather so be attacked once more the Israeli’s struck foremost. Led by the formidable Hel HaAvir. the Israeli air force. The Israelites began the Six-Day war. The Egyptian. Syrian and Jordanian forces were absolutely defeated. By the terminal of the contending Israel stretched from Suez Canal in the East to the Golan Heights in the West efficaciously trebling their land country. One of the most important consequences of the war was that Israel now controlled all of Jerusalem.

Simply. put after centuries of defeat and favoritism. the Zionist motion had come of age. Despite many tests and set dorsums they win in conveying the Jews place. Verily. every Judaic household in Israel can look to its past and claim that a comparative fought heroically in defence of Israel in one of the many wars of the Arab-Israeli struggle. Invested with coevalss of blood and agony. and mandated by God himself. The Israelis are loth to profess so much as an inch of their district to those who would take it from them. In fact. every Israeli soldier. whether elect ranger. pes solider or merely citizen reservist. takes an curse “Masada ( the antediluvian fortress where the last Judaic freedom combatants died defying the Romans ) shall non fall” . By their watchfulness it has non fallen.

  1. The Palestinian Dilemma

The narrative of the Israeli battle for self-government spans centuries. It makes for dramatic reading. However. the events have left a certain group of people in a stumble. The Palestinians who originally held the district before the Israelites arrived.

  1. Eviction of Palestinian colonists after 1948
  2. Al Nakba ( The Calamity )

The old ages following the 1948 struggle are known as the lost old ages. Disorganized Palestinian reservess were no lucifer for the determined and good trained Yishuv forces. Many former Palestinian enclaves fell under the power of the Jews. The few that remained free of Judaic domination were taken over by Syria. Lebanon and Egypt. Having merely fought a blood civil war with their Judaic neighbours the Palestinians were acrimonious and resentful. There was small love between the two people. Many chose to fly or were driven off by the Israelis as both were unwilling to stay with each other.

However. by the 1950s a new coevals of Palestinians formed nationalist groups that were organized clandestinely gathering strength before uncovering themselves in the sixtiess. The original Palestinian elite who had negotiated with the British and the Zionists during the authorization old ages were held accountable of Palestine and were replaced by these groups. Many members of these groups came from the middle-class who late graduated from universities in Cairo or Damascus and imbibed in the ideals of Pan-Arabism put forth by Nasser.

The humiliation of Nasser and his motion during the Six Day war farther dimmed the hopes of the Palestinians. Not merely had the Arab ground forcess failed to emancipate Palestine from the Hebrews but they lost even more districts and the Palestinians were farther displaced. With many of their organisations in ruins and the people one time once more exiled from their places. the Palestinians pinned their hopes of on the Palestinian Liberation Organization ( PLO ) .

The Palestinian people are a point of alarm for the Israeli because before the reaching of the Jews and their independency in 1948 there truly was. in their sentiment. no Palestinian province or Palestinian people merely a group of colonists from assorted other Arab parts Golda Meir herself said ;

It was non as though there was a Palestinian people in Palestine sing itself as a Palestinian people and we came and threw them out and took their state off from them. They did non be.

With such an attitude from a former caput of province it is no admiration that Israel is loth to cover with the Palestinians as anything more than a refugee job. Simply. put the Israelis believe that the lone ground the Palestinians banded together was in resistance to the Zionists. Even their text books are written in such a manner as to disavow a alone Palestinian individuality. The books depict them as Arabs in the land of Israel alternatively of naming them Palestinians.

The refugee job is aggravated by the refusal of other Arab states to accept the Palestinian refugees. Rather than welcome their fellow Muslims the Arabs have forced the Palestinians to stay marginalized and despairing for a land to name their ain. In drumhead the bosom of the job is a refusal of the Israeli province to allow the same right to self-government that they claimed for themselves in 1948. Worsened by a refusal of the Arabs to allow refuge to the Palestinians. As a consequence the Palestinians are progressively despairing and with national authoritiess unwilling to offer aid they have turned to terrorist groups like Al-Quaeda.

  1. Palestine Today

The United Relief Works Agency estimates that there are merely under 4. 5 Million Palestinian refugees. They are defined as those “whose normal topographic point of abode was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948. who lost both their places and agencies of support as a consequence of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict” . Given that many of these are dead by now the figure is made larger by the inclusion of those who were born to people in such fortunes.

Many Palestinians live in low poorness. they are discriminated by the Israelis who will frequently engage them at below mandated rewards. The legion terrorist organisations who recruit from Palestinians have created a heavy intuition on all of them. Virtually every Palestinian is seen as a possible terrorist or suicide bomber. Two major rebellions and the failure of the Palestinian Authority to turn to jobs runing from Peace and Order to rewards of PA employees have made the people even more defeated and despairing. Is it so any admiration that many immature Palestinians would instead strap on bombs on their organic structures and blow themselves up to kill a few Jews alternatively of populating lives of plodding and disillusion?

III. Analysis

“All human existences are born free and equal in self-respect and rights. They are endowed with ground and scruples and should move towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. ” Begins the Universal Declaration of Human rights. The International Covenant for Civil and Political rights offers this retort “All peoples have the right of self-government. By virtuousness of that right they freely determine their political position and freely prosecute their economic. societal and cultural development. ” It is too bad that these rights are denied to The Palestinian people.

Unfortunately. these rights are utmost hard to implement given the geo-political construction of Israel today. Equally tardily as 2006 the Palestinian Terror group known as Hezzbollah was firing projectiles into Israel doing random devastation of belongings and lives. They besides kidnapped several Israeli solider and killed others in surprise onslaughts and foraies. The Israelis reacted by assailing Lebanon.

Palestinian arabs are treated with intuition where of all time they go within Israel’s boundary lines. The Palestinian Authority. already questionable to the Israeli was wholly discredited by the decease of Yasser Arafat and the deficiency of a worthwhile replacement. Worse. the struggle has since spread to far beyond the border’s of Palestine.

Part of Bin-Laden normally inflammatory patters is to remind the Muslim universe that the U. S. has been patronizing the Zionist province of Israel and that without their assistance the Israeli province would long be gone. Harking to the mass airlift of supplies the U. S. made to Israel during the Yom Kippur. As a consequence the Israeli matter has become acassus bellifor Muslims to legalize their onslaughts on those who seek to back up Israeli. An older illustration of this was the Oil trade stoppage that OPEC pulled back in 1973 when it was obvious that the Arabs were losing the Yom Kippur War.

However. this support of Israel is non the lone heartache the Arab universe has against the U. S. they are called the Greater Satan for more grounds. Among them are the invasion of Afghanistan. Somalia and more late Iraq all in chase of their self-proclaimed authorization as defenders of the free universe.

  1. Sovereignty. International position

One of the most critical statements about the Israeli – Palestinian struggle is the issue of Sovereignty over Palestine. Naturally. the two sides have about wholly diametrically opposed readings of events with regard to this. The 1920 San Remo conference was held between the British. the Zionists and the Arab colonists of Palestine and was done largely to ease lifting tensenesss with regard to the Jews mass in-migration.

The Jews hold the the San Remo conference explicitly granted them the authorization for a Judaic fatherland in Palestine. As a consequence. their claims are valid non merely by de facto. since by the terminal of 1948 they controlled the land by force of weaponries. but besides de jure by virtuousness of the pact. Judaic legal experts besides believe that Israel had the right to sovereignty over the districts since Jordan and Egypt had no clear legal sovereignty over those countries and the Israel. moving in self defense mechanism. was entitled to come in those parts to make full the vacuity.

Naturally. the Arabs hold that the San Remo conference conferred no such right to the Jews. Not merely did it non offer them sovereignty but it besides did non place which parts of Palestine were traveling to be capable to this alleged Jewish Home land. To foster their point they besides insist on the right to self-government of national groups which has long been recognized under international jurisprudence. The same right enshrined in Art 1 of the ICCPR

In add-on. most Arabs and Israelis agree that the armistice line of 1949 is non a valid international boundary line. Both groups besides agree that a two province solution is best to stop the struggle between the Israli and Palestinian people. The two provinces will be demarcated by the 1949-1967 cease-fire lines. This would supply the best solution because the Palestinian authorization has been an low failure. It was ne’er strong plenty to asseverate itself over the mean Palestinian citizen and was plagued with job from the beginning. The fact that its civilian authorization was frequently over shadowed by Israeli military forts did non assist its credibleness.

The international consensus it that the Annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem is illegal and should non be recognized under international jurisprudence. The business of the West Bank and Gaza strip has the position of an illegal business because they were conquered via force of weaponries and against the will of the populations Besides. the people were rendered stateless by the onslaughts and the Israeli’s put the district under military instead than civilian disposal.

After the Six-Day war the UN stepped in with UN declaration 242. Adopted nem con. it called for the Establishment of a merely and permanent peace in the Middle East which was to be achieved by following two rules ; First. the Withdrawal of Isreali forces districts occupied in the struggle and 2nd. expiration of all claims or provinces of belligerence. Besides included were regard for the of every province in the part to populate in peace within secure and recognized boundary lines. All province parties in the Six twenty-four hours war agreed. in rule. to UN Res 242 with the exclusion of Syria which granted it conditional credence in 1972

However. the province of belligerence remained profoundly rooted amongst the Arabs. The caputs of Arab provinces adopted their ain declaration in a conference held at Khartoum. in September 1967. The celebrated three Nos ; no acknowledgment of the Israeli conquerings. and no dialogues and most significantlyno acknowledgment of the Israeli province.

  1. Decision

Israel fought long and hard to accomplish independency. For centuries they were a down trodden minority oppressed and discriminated upon by their neighbours. However. it would look that they are making to the Palestinians precisely the same thing they endured. By coercing the Palestinians to stay homeless and hapless they are driving them to desperate terminals.

A war for to suppress Israel is out of the inquiry. clip and clip once more the IDF has shown itself a competent ground forces. The curse “Masada shall non fall” Burnss in the bosom of every Israeli oiler and reservist. they are determined ne’er once more to be conquered by force of weaponries. Short of atomic arms no Arab ground forces will get the better of the Jews in conflict. The Yom Kippur war is the best look of this. despite the component of surprise the Arabs were finally defeated by an Israel surrounded and with little more than moral support from the outside universe.

The best solution to the job would be merely to let the Palestinians true liberty under Palestinian leaders. After all the right to self finding is guaranteed by the UDHR and the ICCPR. The cost of procuring the Palestinian enclaves is a drain on Israeli work force and fundss. Leting them live their lives on their ain is traveling to be best class of action. By allowing them true independency the Palestinians would merely hold themselves to fault if they failed and this would take the air current of the “Freedom! ” slogan being sold them by panic groups. With out the justification of. allegedly. emancipating the Palestinians from the Oppressive Jews Islamic extremists would lose much of their popular support in Palestine for their panic onslaughts

Israel has been recognized by her neighbours merely late. although her ground forcess are competent. this does non intend she can run roughshod over her neighbours. By fring itself of the legal monkey known as the Palestinian Question it would unburden itself of unnecessary hurting. The Palestinians enclaves are enclaves exactly because they are districts that Israel and her neighbours care small for. With the possible exclusion of the Gaza Strip. losing the districts the Palestinians clasp would be a little loss. There is plentifulness of room in Israel for her Seven Million citizens. After all. did non Israel make the desert bloom?

For the Arabs. they must fit their talk with action. They bleed for the Palestinians yet more assistance comes to them from working illegal occupations in Israel than from human-centered assistance from their Arab brothers. Arab states rich with oil could surely supply subsidies to assist the Palestinians get back on their pess if they are granted independency. If Bin Laden can afford to pass 1000000s to fund his panic initiatives why can’t the Arab provinces spare a small of its gasoline money to assist their Muslim brothers? Is non Charity portion of the Muslim commandments?

Mentions

The book of Exodus 3:7-8 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

Book of Genesis in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

hypertext transfer protocol: //www. fordham. edu/halsall/source/urban2-5vers. hypertext markup language # Fulcher ( Last accessed 14 Dec 07 )

Fulcher of Chartres. Medieval Sourcebook. Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. fordham. edu/halsall/source/urban2-5vers. hypertext markup language # Fulcher ( Last accessed 14 Dec 07 )

Vladimir Minorsky. The Prehistory of Saladin. Studies in Caucasic History. Cambridge University Press. 1957.

Malcolm Lyons and D. E. P. Jackson. “Saladin: The Politicss of the Holy War”

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 session 30 on 10 November 1975

Arjun. SethiZionism & A ; The British in PalestineJanuary 2007. available at hypertext transfer protocol: //fusion. dalmatech. com/ % 7Eadmin24/files/zionism_in-britishpalestine. pdf ( Last accessed 12 Dec 07

The Basle Program. Resolutions of the First Zionist Congress available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. mideastweb. org/basleprogram. htm ( last accessed 10 Dec 07 )

Morris. Benny ( 2001 ) . Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict. 1881-2001.

El-Nawawy. Mohammed ( 2002 ) . The Israeli-Egyptian Peace Process in the Reporting of Western Journalists. Ablex/Greenwood.

Gelber. Yoav. Palestine 1948. WAr. Escape and the Emergnece of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Sussex Academic Press. ( 2006 )

Karsh. Efraim. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. The Palestine War 1948. Osprey Publishing. ( 2006 )

Khalidi. Rashid ( 1997 ) . Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. New York. New york: Columbia University Press p 190

Cooley. John KGreen March. Black September.Frank Cass. London 1973 pp. 196f

Zionist Aspirations: Dr Weizmann on the Future of Palestine’ . The Times. Saturday. 8 May. 1920

Weizmann “The losing Revisoner: contemplations on the Status of Judea and Samaria” 3 Israel jurisprudence reappraisal ( 1968 )

Blum. Yehuda. “The Juridical Status of Jerusalem” ( 1974 )

United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 ( December 17. 1981 ) . about the Golan Heights.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 ( August 20. 1980 ) . about East Jerusalem.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 ( S/RES/242 )

Hinnebusch. Raymond A. ; Drysdale. Alasdair. Syria and the Middle East Peace Process. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press. ( 1991 )

SeeExodus 3:7-8 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

SeeGenesis 12:1-2 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

SeeGenesis 21:1-8 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

SeeGenesis 16:1-114 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

Genesis 46:1-33 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

Exodus 1:8-16 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

Exodus 2:1-8 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

Exodus 2:11-16 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

Exodus 3:7-8 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Today’s English Version 1978

Fulcher of Chartres. Medieval Sourcebook. Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. fordham. edu/halsall/source/urban2-5vers. hypertext markup language # Fulcher ( Last accessed 14 Dec 07 )

Vladimir Minorsky. The Prehistory of Saladin. Studies in Caucasic History. Cambridge University Press. 1957. pp. 124-132.

Malcolm Lyons and D. E. P. Jackson. “Saladin: The Politicss of the Holy War” p 2

Beha ad-Din. The Life of Saladin. pages 278-281

Gellner. Ernest. States and Nationalism ( First edition ) . p 107-108.

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 session 30 on 10 November 1975

Arjun. SethiZionism & A ; The British in PalestineJanuary 2007. available at hypertext transfer protocol: //fusion. dalmatech. com/ % 7Eadmin24/files/zionism_in-britishpalestine. pdf ( Last accessed 12 Dec 07

The Basle Program. Resolutions of the First Zionist Congress available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. mideastweb. org/basleprogram. htm ( last accessed 10 Dec 07 )

l-Nawawy. Mohammed ( 2002 ) . The Israeli-Egyptian Peace Process in the Reporting of Western Journalists. Ablex/Greenwood. p 1-2

Morris. Benny ( 2001 ) . Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict. 1881-2001. P 190

Gelber. Yoav. Palestine 1948. WAr. Escape and the Emergnece of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Sussex Academic Press p. 73.besides; Karsh. Efraim. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. The Palestine War 1948. Osprey Publishing. ( 2006 ) . p. 25.

Khalidi. Rashid ( 1997 ) . Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. New York. New york: Columbia University Press p 190

Cooley. John KGreen March. Black September.Frank Cass. London 1973 pp. 196f

Art 1 UDHR

ICCPR Art 1

Zionist Aspirations: Dr Weizmann on the Future of Palestine’ . The Times. Saturday. 8 May. 1920 ; p. 15.

3 Israel Law Review p190

All peoples have the right of self-government. By virtuousness of that right they freely determine their political position and freely prosecute their economic. societal and cultural development

United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 ( December 17. 1981 ) . about the Golan Heights.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 ( August 20. 1980 ) . about East Jerusalem.

Hinnebusch. Raymond A. ; Drysdale. Alasdair. Syria and the Middle East Peace Process. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press. ( 1991 ) P 105

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